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OBAT KUAT PENEGAKAN UU JAKON DI SEKTOR SWASTA

Penulis : Irwan Susilo, tinggal di www.geospasia.com.

Dua dekade undang-undang (UU) terkait jasa konstruksi telah hadir di Indonesia. UU nomor 18 tahun 1999 tentang Jasa Konstruksi menjadi tonggak pengaturan jasa konstruksi di Indonesia. Selanjutnya UU nomor 2 tahun 2017 tentang Jasa Konstruksi (Jakon) yang menegaskan kegiatan jasa konstruksi sebagai kegiatan masyarakat dalam mewujudkan bangunan dalam rangka pembangunan nasional, guna mendorong dan mewujudkan prasarana kegiatan sosial ekonomi bagi masyarakat.

Banyak kendala dan tantangan dalam penegakan UU Jakon. Disparitas kondisi pembangunan ekonomi, infrastruktur, sumber daya manusia, lemahnya penegakan hukum serta kondisi geografi yang beragam menjadi tantangan besar dalam menegakkan UU Jakon.

Seolah-seolah UU Jakon hanya berlaku bagi sektor pemerintah atau kegiatan yang bersumber dari APBN atau APBD. Konstruksi di sektor swasta seakan berjalan sendiri mengabaikan UU jakon dan lebih tunduk pada kapitalisasi pemegang modal. Perlu keseriusan dan kesamaan langkah bersama segenap stakeholder Jakon untuk menegakkan UU Jakon.

Lemahnya penegakan UU Jakon di sektor swasta tidak hanya merugikan bagi para pelaku usaha konstruksi tetapi juga kerugian bagi pengguna (konsumen) dan negara. Jaminan dan tanggung jawab menyangkut kualitas konstruksi, keselamatan bangunan, dan aspek hukum menjadi tidak jelas.

Iklim persaingan usaha jasa konstruksi menjadi tidak sehat dan cenderung menjadi pasar bebas. Liberalisasi usaha jasa konstruksi semakin mematikan usaha kecil dan potensi lokal usaha jasa konstruksi. Pengembangan profesi tenaga terampil dan ahli bidang konstruksi terhambat.

Penegakan UU Jakon Sektor Swasta

Peraturan Pemerintah No. 22 Tahun 2020 tentang Peraturan Pelaksanaan UU No. 2 Tahun 2017 tentang Jasa Konstruksi mempertegas bahwa UU Jakon berlaku bagi pemerintah pusat, pemerintah daerah, sektor swasta dan masyarakat. Pemerintah pusat dan/atau pemerintah daerah dalam melaksanakan kewenangan dan tanggung jawab di bidang jasa konstruksi dapat melibatkan masyarakat Jakon dalam peningkatan kapasitas SDM Jakon, penyelenggaraan sistem informasi Jakon, penerbitan ijin usaha nasional, pengawasan tertib usaha, tertib penyelenggaraan dan tertib pemanfaatan Jakon.

Salah satu upaya menegakkan UU Jakon di sektor swasta adalah mengintegrasikan secara ketat substansi UU Jakon ke dalam sistem perizinan terkait bangunan mulai dari perencanaan, saat konstruksi dan hingga operasional. Keterlibatan dan penggunaan tenaga ahli dan tenaga terampil konstruksi bersertifikat/terkompetensi wajib untuk memberikan jaminan dan kepastian hukum bagi pengguna Jakon.

Ijin Lingkungan merupakan salah satu bagian dari proses perijinan dalam pendirian bangunan yang merujuk pada UU No. 32 Tahun 2009 tentang Perlindungan dan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup (PPLH). Regulasi Jakon semestinya menjadi bagian dari rujukan dalam penyusunan dokumen lingkungan (AMDAL, DELH, UKL UPL, dan lainnya) dan penerbitan ijin lingkungan. Kewajiban pelibatan tenaga ahli atau tenaga terampil bersertifikat (SKA/SKT) serta badan usaha yang bersertifikat badan usaha konstruksi (SBU) sesuai amanah UU Jakon perlu dituangkan dalam dokumen lingkungan yang bersifat wajib. Implementasi dan monitoring dari penggunaan SDM dan badan usaha bersertifikat tersebut dituangkan dalam matrik pengelolaan lingkungan sebagai petunjuk pelaksanaan bagi konsumen, pelaku jakon dan pemerintah yang berwenang dan bertanggung jawab terkait penyelenggaraan dan penertiban usaha Jakon. Hal ini juga akan mempermudah dan memberikan panduan bagi aparat yang berwenang dalam penegakan UU Jakon di sektor swasta pada khususnya.

Integrasi UU Jakon dengan UU PPLH sangat mungkin dilakukan dengan penyusunan “Pedoman Penyusunan Dokumen Lingkungan Hidup Bidang Konstruksi”. Penyusunan melibatkan unsur berwenang dan penanggung jawab dalam bidang konstruksi dan unsur berwenang dan penanggung jawab bidang pengelolaan lingkungan hidup serta unsur masyarakat. Unsur masyarakat terutama mencakup  asosiasi profesi dan badan usaha bidang konstruksi, asosiasi profesi dan badan usaha bidang lingkungan hidup serta unsur masyarakat terkait lainnya. INKINDO sebagai asosiasi badan usaha konstruksi dan INTAKINDO sebagai asosiasi profesi di bidang lingkungan dan konstruksi mempunyai peran strategis dalam implementasi integrasi UU Jakon dan UU PPLH. Kesepahaman bersama lintas departemen perlu dilakukan dalam penegakan UU Jakon di bidang Konstruksi.

Manfaat Bagi Masyarakat Jakon

Penegakan UU Jakon pada sektor swasta akan sangat berpengaruh pada gairahnya dunia Jakon Nasional. Pasar jasa konstruksi nasional menjadi lebih terbuka terhadap serapan tenaga profesional pemegang SKA dan peran badan usaha bersertifikat (SBU konstruksi). Perlindungan konsumen jakon dan kepastian hukum menjadi lebih jelas. Mendorong kemandirian dan kemerdekaan industri Jakon Nasional sebagai tuan rumah di negeri sendiri.

Seperti apa wajah industri Jakon Nasional kedepan pasca terbitnya PP No.22 Tahun 2020, layak ditunggu inisiatif dari para pihak pelaku jakon. Semoga tidak pucat pasi dan makin loyo. (irw/sekinkindojatim)

13 thoughts on “OBAT KUAT PENEGAKAN UU JAKON DI SEKTOR SWASTA

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